Electric Nation - Powered Up
|Funding mechanism||Network Innovation Allowance (NIA)|
|Duration||Jan 2020 - Mar 2022|
|Research area||Transition to low carbon future|
The aims of the project are as follows:
- Explore and report on the impact of V2G charging on the LV network utilising end-user trial charging data and analysis.
- Demonstrate, via modelling, to what extent V2G can assist with management of LV network demand.
- Examine how sophisticated dynamic bi-directional energy services based on vehicle battery storage, from a variety of energy suppliers, may impact the LV infrastructure.
- Provide recommendations for policy and commercial frameworks on V2G services.
It is already known that the transition to electric vehicles will double the load per house where a car is being charged (based on 12,000 miles per year) and bi-directional charging could be utilised in up to 15% of homes by 2040 (ref National Grid Future Energy scenarios report 2019). Such devices bring a potential issue for low voltage networks with multiple cycles of charge and discharge greatly increasing the throughput of energy; exacerbated by their higher connection powers (up to 7kW) and much larger battery capacities (up to 90KWh), in comparison to existing stationary battery storage. The energy flow for these batteries will be directed by various energy suppliers who will provide end users with low cost electricity or even pay for use of the battery flexibility. Understanding the nature of this energy flow is essential in developing connection policy and for facilitating sufficient network planning to avoid voltages deviating from statutory voltage limits.
In this project, up to 110 homes (minimum of 90) with existing EV users will be equipped with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) chargers to study and then manage the throughput of energy. To replicate the likely future situation, up to five energy service providers will be invited to provide unique V2G profiles which will be delivered via a Charge Point management platform (Crowd Charge); this should produce a wide range of use cases for which data will be gathered to produce charger use profiles. These profiles will be served to a network modelling tool (EA technology Network Assessment Tool) to model the effect on a range of networks at varying levels of EV penetration. In turn this modelling will be used to provide “V2G use envelope parameters” that will describe any constraints that need to be applied to the use of such assets. The constraints will then be distributed across the whole population of V2G installations taking into account the requirements for vehicle use. As part of this distribution, any restrictions to delivery of energy service will be identified on an event-by-event basis and the cost of any non-delivery evaluated. This should inform the value of incentives required for a commercial low voltage network demand/export response service to be offered by the Distribution System Operator (DSO).